Appendix A

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Appendix A - Key References

Anderies, J. M., M. A. Janssen, and E. Ostrom. 2004. A framework to analyze the robustness of social-ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society 9(1): 18. [online] URL:

Berkes, F., J. Colding and C. Folke (eds.) 2003. Navigating Social-Ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.

Carpenter, S.R., B.H. Walker, J.M. Anderies and N. Abel. 2001. From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What? Ecosystems 4: 765-781.

Folke, C., S. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson and C.S. Holling. 2005. Regime shifts, resilience and biodiversity in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 35: 557-581.

Gunderson, L and Holling C.S., (eds.) 2002. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

Holling, C. S. (1978). Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Wiley, London. Reprinted by Blackburn Press in 2005.

Holling, C.S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, social and ecological systems. Ecosystems 4: 390-405

Lee, K. (1993). Compass and gyroscope: integrating science and politics for the environment. Washington, D.C., Island Press.

Peterson, G. D., T. D. Beard Jr., B. E. Beisner, E. M. Bennett, S. R. Carpenter, G. S. Cumming, C. L. Dent, and T. D. Havlicek. 2003. Assessing future ecosystem services: a case study of the Northern Highlands Lake District, Wisconsin. Conservation Ecology 7(3): 1. [online] URL:

Scheffer, M., and S.R. Carpenter. 2003. Catastrophic regime shifts in ecosystems: linking theory to observation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18 (12), 648-656.

Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J. Foley, C. Folke and B. Walker. 2001. Stochastic events can trigger large state shifts in ecosystems with reduced resilience. Nature 413: 591-596.

Walker, B. and J. A. Meyers. 2004. Thresholds in ecological and social–ecological systems: a developing database. Ecology and Society 9(2): 3. [online] URL:

Walker, B., C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5. [online] URL:

Walker, B., S. Carpenter, J. Anderies, N. Abel, G. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, G. D. Peterson, and R. Pritchard. 2002. Resilience management in social-ecological systems: a working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6(1): 14. [online] URL:

Walters, C. J. (1986). Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York, McGraw Hill.

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